cattrs package#

cattrs.structure(obj, cl)#

Convert unstructured Python data structures to structured data.

Parameters:
  • obj (Any) –

  • cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

T

cattrs.unstructure(obj, unstructure_as=None)#
Parameters:
  • obj (Any) –

  • unstructure_as (Any) –

Return type:

Any

cattrs.get_structure_hook(type, cache_result=True)#

Get the structure hook for the given type.

This hook can be manually called, or composed with other functions and re-registered.

If no hook is registered, the converter structure fallback factory will be used to produce one.

Parameters:
  • cache – Whether to cache the returned hook.

  • type (Any) –

  • cache_result (bool) –

Return type:

Callable[[Any, Any], Any]

New in version 24.1.0.

cattrs.get_unstructure_hook(type, cache_result=True)#

Get the unstructure hook for the given type.

This hook can be manually called, or composed with other functions and re-registered.

If no hook is registered, the converter unstructure fallback factory will be used to produce one.

Parameters:
  • cache – Whether to cache the returned hook.

  • type (Any) –

  • cache_result (bool) –

Return type:

Callable[[Any], Any]

New in version 24.1.0.

cattrs.register_structure_hook_func(check_func, func)#

Register a class-to-primitive converter function for a class, using a function to check if it’s a match.

Parameters:
  • check_func (Callable[[Any], bool]) –

  • func (Callable[[Any, Any], Any]) –

Return type:

None

cattrs.register_structure_hook(cl, func=None)#

Register a primitive-to-class converter function for a type.

The converter function should take two arguments:
  • a Python object to be converted,

  • the type to convert to

and return the instance of the class. The type may seem redundant, but is sometimes needed (for example, when dealing with generic classes).

This method may be used as a decorator. In this case, the decorated hook must have a return type annotation, and this annotation will be used as the type for the hook.

Changed in version 24.1.0: This method may now be used as a decorator.

Parameters:
  • cl (Any) –

  • func (Callable[[Any, Any], Any] | None) –

Return type:

None

cattrs.register_unstructure_hook_func(check_func, func)#

Register a class-to-primitive converter function for a class, using a function to check if it’s a match.

Parameters:
  • check_func (Callable[[Any], bool]) –

  • func (Callable[[Any], Any]) –

Return type:

None

cattrs.register_unstructure_hook(cls=None, func=None)#

Register a class-to-primitive converter function for a class.

The converter function should take an instance of the class and return its Python equivalent.

May also be used as a decorator. When used as a decorator, the first argument annotation from the decorated function will be used as the type to register the hook for.

Changed in version 24.1.0: This method may now be used as a decorator.

Parameters:
  • cls (Any) –

  • func (UnstructureHook | None) –

Return type:

Callable[[UnstructureHook]] | None

cattrs.structure_attrs_fromdict(obj, cl)#

Instantiate an attrs class from a mapping (dict).

Parameters:
  • obj (Mapping[str, Any]) –

  • cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

T

cattrs.structure_attrs_fromtuple(obj, cl)#

Load an attrs class from a sequence (tuple).

Parameters:
  • obj (tuple[Any, ...]) –

  • cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

T

cattrs.global_converter: Final = <cattrs.converters.Converter object>#

The global converter. Prefer creating your own if customizations are required.

class cattrs.BaseConverter(dict_factory=<class 'dict'>, unstruct_strat=UnstructureStrategy.AS_DICT, prefer_attrib_converters=False, detailed_validation=True, unstructure_fallback_factory=<function BaseConverter.<lambda>>, structure_fallback_factory=<function BaseConverter.<lambda>>)[source]#

Bases: object

Converts between structured and unstructured data.

Parameters:
  • detailed_validation (bool) – Whether to use a slightly slower mode for detailed validation errors.

  • unstructure_fallback_factory (HookFactory[UnstructureHook]) – A hook factory to be called when no registered unstructuring hooks match.

  • structure_fallback_factory (HookFactory[StructureHook]) – A hook factory to be called when no registered structuring hooks match.

  • dict_factory (Callable[[], Any]) –

  • unstruct_strat (UnstructureStrategy) –

  • prefer_attrib_converters (bool) –

New in version 23.2.0: unstructure_fallback_factory

New in version 23.2.0: structure_fallback_factory

detailed_validation#
unstructure(obj, unstructure_as=None)[source]#
Parameters:
  • obj (Any) –

  • unstructure_as (Any) –

Return type:

Any

property unstruct_strat: UnstructureStrategy#

The default way of unstructuring attrs classes.

register_unstructure_hook() Callable[[Callable[[Any], Any]], None][source]#
register_unstructure_hook(cls: Any, func: Callable[[Any], Any]) None

Register a class-to-primitive converter function for a class.

The converter function should take an instance of the class and return its Python equivalent.

May also be used as a decorator. When used as a decorator, the first argument annotation from the decorated function will be used as the type to register the hook for.

Changed in version 24.1.0: This method may now be used as a decorator.

register_unstructure_hook_func(check_func, func)[source]#

Register a class-to-primitive converter function for a class, using a function to check if it’s a match.

Parameters:
  • check_func (Callable[[Any], bool]) –

  • func (Callable[[Any], Any]) –

Return type:

None

register_unstructure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool]) Callable[[UnstructureHookFactory], UnstructureHookFactory][source]#
register_unstructure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool]) Callable[[ExtendedUnstructureHookFactory], ExtendedUnstructureHookFactory]
register_unstructure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool], factory: UnstructureHookFactory) UnstructureHookFactory
register_unstructure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool], factory: ExtendedUnstructureHookFactory) ExtendedUnstructureHookFactory

Register a hook factory for a given predicate.

The hook factory may expose an additional required parameter. In this case, the current converter will be provided to the hook factory as that parameter.

May also be used as a decorator.

Parameters:
  • predicate – A function that, given a type, returns whether the factory can produce a hook for that type.

  • factory – A callable that, given a type, produces an unstructuring hook for that type. This unstructuring hook will be cached.

Changed in version 24.1.0: This method may now be used as a decorator. The factory may also receive the converter as a second, required argument.

get_unstructure_hook(type, cache_result=True)[source]#

Get the unstructure hook for the given type.

This hook can be manually called, or composed with other functions and re-registered.

If no hook is registered, the converter unstructure fallback factory will be used to produce one.

Parameters:
  • cache – Whether to cache the returned hook.

  • type (Any) –

  • cache_result (bool) –

Return type:

Callable[[Any], Any]

New in version 24.1.0.

register_structure_hook() Callable[[Callable[[Any, Any], Any]], None][source]#
register_structure_hook(cl: Any, func: Any) None

Register a primitive-to-class converter function for a type.

The converter function should take two arguments:
  • a Python object to be converted,

  • the type to convert to

and return the instance of the class. The type may seem redundant, but is sometimes needed (for example, when dealing with generic classes).

This method may be used as a decorator. In this case, the decorated hook must have a return type annotation, and this annotation will be used as the type for the hook.

Changed in version 24.1.0: This method may now be used as a decorator.

register_structure_hook_func(check_func, func)[source]#

Register a class-to-primitive converter function for a class, using a function to check if it’s a match.

Parameters:
  • check_func (Callable[[Any], bool]) –

  • func (Callable[[Any, Any], Any]) –

Return type:

None

register_structure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool]) Callable[[StructureHookFactory, StructureHookFactory]][source]#
register_structure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool]) Callable[[ExtendedStructureHookFactory, ExtendedStructureHookFactory]]
register_structure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool], factory: StructureHookFactory) StructureHookFactory
register_structure_hook_factory(predicate: Callable[[Any], bool], factory: ExtendedStructureHookFactory) ExtendedStructureHookFactory

Register a hook factory for a given predicate.

The hook factory may expose an additional required parameter. In this case, the current converter will be provided to the hook factory as that parameter.

May also be used as a decorator.

Parameters:
  • predicate – A function that, given a type, returns whether the factory can produce a hook for that type.

  • factory – A callable that, given a type, produces a structuring hook for that type. This structuring hook will be cached.

Changed in version 24.1.0: This method may now be used as a decorator. The factory may also receive the converter as a second, required argument.

structure(obj, cl)[source]#

Convert unstructured Python data structures to structured data.

Parameters:
  • obj (Any) –

  • cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

T

get_structure_hook(type, cache_result=True)[source]#

Get the structure hook for the given type.

This hook can be manually called, or composed with other functions and re-registered.

If no hook is registered, the converter structure fallback factory will be used to produce one.

Parameters:
  • cache – Whether to cache the returned hook.

  • type (Any) –

  • cache_result (bool) –

Return type:

Callable[[Any, Any], Any]

New in version 24.1.0.

unstructure_attrs_asdict(obj)[source]#

Our version of attrs.asdict, so we can call back to us.

Parameters:

obj (Any) –

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

unstructure_attrs_astuple(obj)[source]#

Our version of attrs.astuple, so we can call back to us.

Parameters:

obj (Any) –

Return type:

tuple[Any, …]

structure_attrs_fromtuple(obj, cl)[source]#

Load an attrs class from a sequence (tuple).

Parameters:
  • obj (tuple[Any, ...]) –

  • cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

T

structure_attrs_fromdict(obj, cl)[source]#

Instantiate an attrs class from a mapping (dict).

Parameters:
  • obj (Mapping[str, Any]) –

  • cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

T

copy(dict_factory=None, unstruct_strat=None, prefer_attrib_converters=None, detailed_validation=None)[source]#

Create a copy of the converter, keeping all existing custom hooks.

Parameters:
  • detailed_validation (bool | None) – Whether to use a slightly slower mode for detailed validation errors.

  • dict_factory (Callable[[], Any] | None) –

  • unstruct_strat (UnstructureStrategy | None) –

  • prefer_attrib_converters (bool | None) –

Return type:

BaseConverter

class cattrs.Converter(dict_factory=<class 'dict'>, unstruct_strat=UnstructureStrategy.AS_DICT, omit_if_default=False, forbid_extra_keys=False, type_overrides={}, unstruct_collection_overrides={}, prefer_attrib_converters=False, detailed_validation=True, unstructure_fallback_factory=<function Converter.<lambda>>, structure_fallback_factory=<function Converter.<lambda>>)[source]#

Bases: BaseConverter

A converter which generates specialized un/structuring functions.

Parameters:
  • detailed_validation (bool) – Whether to use a slightly slower mode for detailed validation errors.

  • unstructure_fallback_factory (HookFactory[UnstructureHook]) – A hook factory to be called when no registered unstructuring hooks match.

  • structure_fallback_factory (HookFactory[StructureHook]) – A hook factory to be called when no registered structuring hooks match.

  • dict_factory (Callable[[], Any]) –

  • unstruct_strat (UnstructureStrategy) –

  • omit_if_default (bool) –

  • forbid_extra_keys (bool) –

  • type_overrides (Mapping[type, AttributeOverride]) –

  • unstruct_collection_overrides (Mapping[type, Callable]) –

  • prefer_attrib_converters (bool) –

New in version 23.2.0: unstructure_fallback_factory

New in version 23.2.0: structure_fallback_factory

omit_if_default#
forbid_extra_keys#
type_overrides#
get_structure_newtype(type)[source]#
Parameters:

type (type[~T]) –

Return type:

Callable[[Any, Any], T]

gen_unstructure_annotated(type)[source]#
gen_structure_annotated(type)[source]#

A hook factory for annotated types.

Return type:

Callable

gen_unstructure_typeddict(cl)[source]#

Generate a TypedDict unstructure function.

Also apply converter-scored modifications.

Parameters:

cl (Any) –

Return type:

Callable[[dict], dict]

gen_unstructure_attrs_fromdict(cl)[source]#
Parameters:

cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

Callable[[T], dict[str, Any]]

gen_unstructure_optional(cl)[source]#

Generate an unstructuring hook for optional types.

Parameters:

cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

Callable[[T], Any]

gen_structure_typeddict(cl)[source]#

Generate a TypedDict structure function.

Also apply converter-scored modifications.

Parameters:

cl (Any) –

Return type:

Callable[[dict], dict]

gen_structure_attrs_fromdict(cl)[source]#
Parameters:

cl (type[~T]) –

Return type:

Callable[[Mapping[str, Any], Any], T]

gen_unstructure_iterable(cl, unstructure_to=None)[source]#
Parameters:
  • cl (Any) –

  • unstructure_to (Any) –

Return type:

Callable[[Iterable[Any]], Any]

gen_unstructure_hetero_tuple(cl, unstructure_to=None)[source]#
Parameters:
  • cl (Any) –

  • unstructure_to (Any) –

Return type:

Callable[[Tuple[Any, …]], Any]

gen_unstructure_mapping(cl, unstructure_to=None, key_handler=None)[source]#
Parameters:
  • cl (Any) –

  • unstructure_to (Any) –

  • key_handler (Callable[[Any, Any | None], Any] | None) –

Return type:

Callable[[Mapping[Any, Any]], Any]

gen_structure_counter(cl)[source]#
Parameters:

cl (Any) –

Return type:

Callable[[Mapping[Any, Any], Any], T]

gen_structure_mapping(cl)[source]#
Parameters:

cl (Any) –

Return type:

Callable[[Mapping[Any, Any], Any], T]

copy(dict_factory=None, unstruct_strat=None, omit_if_default=None, forbid_extra_keys=None, type_overrides=None, unstruct_collection_overrides=None, prefer_attrib_converters=None, detailed_validation=None)[source]#

Create a copy of the converter, keeping all existing custom hooks.

Parameters:
  • detailed_validation (bool | None) – Whether to use a slightly slower mode for detailed validation errors.

  • dict_factory (Callable[[], Any] | None) –

  • unstruct_strat (UnstructureStrategy | None) –

  • omit_if_default (bool | None) –

  • forbid_extra_keys (bool | None) –

  • type_overrides (Mapping[type, AttributeOverride] | None) –

  • unstruct_collection_overrides (Mapping[type, Callable] | None) –

  • prefer_attrib_converters (bool | None) –

Return type:

Converter

class cattrs.AttributeValidationNote(string, name, type)[source]#

Bases: str

Attached as a note to an exception when an attribute fails structuring.

Parameters:
  • string (str) –

  • name (str) –

  • type (Any) –

Return type:

AttributeValidationNote

name: str#
type: Any#
exception cattrs.BaseValidationError(message, excs, cl)[source]#

Bases: ExceptionGroup

Parameters:

cl (Type) –

cl: Type#
derive(excs)[source]#
exception cattrs.ClassValidationError(message, excs, cl)[source]#

Bases: BaseValidationError

Raised when validating a class if any attributes are invalid.

Parameters:

cl (Type) –

group_exceptions()[source]#

Split the exceptions into two groups: with and without validation notes.

Return type:

Tuple[List[Tuple[Exception, AttributeValidationNote]], List[Exception]]

exception cattrs.ForbiddenExtraKeysError(message, cl, extra_fields)[source]#

Bases: Exception

Raised when forbid_extra_keys is activated and such extra keys are detected during structuring.

The attribute extra_fields is a sequence of those extra keys, which were the cause of this error, and cl is the class which was structured with those extra keys.

Parameters:
  • message (str | None) –

  • cl (Type) –

  • extra_fields (Set[str]) –

Return type:

None

cattrs.GenConverter#

alias of Converter

exception cattrs.IterableValidationError(message, excs, cl)[source]#

Bases: BaseValidationError

Raised when structuring an iterable.

Parameters:

cl (Type) –

group_exceptions()[source]#

Split the exceptions into two groups: with and without validation notes.

Return type:

Tuple[List[Tuple[Exception, IterableValidationNote]], List[Exception]]

class cattrs.IterableValidationNote(string, index, type)[source]#

Bases: str

Attached as a note to an exception when an iterable element fails structuring.

Parameters:
  • string (str) –

  • index (int | str) –

  • type (Any) –

Return type:

IterableValidationNote

type: Any#
cattrs.override(omit_if_default=None, rename=None, omit=None, struct_hook=None, unstruct_hook=None)[source]#

Override how a particular field is handled.

Parameters:
  • omit (bool | None) – Whether to skip the field or not. None means apply default handling.

  • omit_if_default (bool | None) –

  • rename (str | None) –

  • struct_hook (Callable[[Any, Any], Any] | None) –

  • unstruct_hook (Callable[[Any], Any] | None) –

Return type:

AttributeOverride

exception cattrs.StructureHandlerNotFoundError(message, type_)[source]#

Bases: Exception

Error raised when structuring cannot find a handler for converting inputs into type_.

Parameters:
  • message (str) –

  • type_ (Type) –

Return type:

None

cattrs.transform_error(exc, path='$', format_exception=<function format_exception>)[source]#

Transform an exception into a list of error messages.

To get detailed error messages, the exception should be produced by a converter with detailed_validation set.

By default, the error messages are in the form of {description} @ {path}.

While traversing the exception and subexceptions, the path is formed:

  • by appending .{field_name} for fields in classes

  • by appending [{int}] for indices in iterables, like lists

  • by appending [{str}] for keys in mappings, like dictionaries

Parameters:
  • exc (ClassValidationError | IterableValidationError | BaseException) – The exception to transform into error messages.

  • path (str) – The root path to use.

  • format_exception (Callable[[BaseException, type | None], str]) – A callable to use to transform Exceptions into string descriptions of errors.

Return type:

List[str]

New in version 23.1.0.

class cattrs.UnstructureStrategy(value, names=None, *, module=None, qualname=None, type=None, start=1, boundary=None)[source]#

Bases: Enum

attrs classes unstructuring strategies.

AS_DICT = 'asdict'#
AS_TUPLE = 'astuple'#

Subpackages#

Submodules#

cattrs.cols module#

Utility functions for collections.

cattrs.cols.is_any_set(type)[source]#

A predicate function for both mutable and frozensets.

Return type:

bool

cattrs.cols.is_frozenset(type)[source]#

A predicate function for frozensets.

Matches built-in frozensets and frozensets from the typing module.

Parameters:

type (Any) –

Return type:

bool

cattrs.cols.is_namedtuple(type)[source]#

A predicate function for named tuples.

Parameters:

type (Any) –

Return type:

bool

cattrs.cols.is_set(type)#

A predicate function for (mutable) sets.

Matches built-in sets and sets from the typing module.

Parameters:

type (Any) –

Return type:

bool

cattrs.cols.is_sequence(type)[source]#

A predicate function for sequences.

Matches lists, sequences, mutable sequences, deques and homogenous tuples.

Parameters:

type (Any) –

Return type:

bool

cattrs.cols.iterable_unstructure_factory(cl, converter, unstructure_to=None)[source]#

A hook factory for unstructuring iterables.

Parameters:
  • unstructure_to (Any) – Force unstructuring to this type, if provided.

  • cl (Any) –

  • converter (BaseConverter) –

Return type:

UnstructureHook

cattrs.cols.list_structure_factory(type, converter)[source]#

A hook factory for structuring lists.

Converts any given iterable into a list.

Parameters:
Return type:

StructureHook

cattrs.cols.namedtuple_structure_factory(type, converter)[source]#

A hook factory for structuring namedtuples.

Parameters:
Return type:

StructureHook

cattrs.cols.namedtuple_unstructure_factory(type, converter, unstructure_to=None)[source]#

A hook factory for unstructuring namedtuples.

Parameters:
  • unstructure_to (Any) – Force unstructuring to this type, if provided.

  • type (type[tuple]) –

  • converter (BaseConverter) –

Return type:

UnstructureHook

cattrs.disambiguators module#

Utilities for union (sum type) disambiguation.

cattrs.disambiguators.is_supported_union(typ)[source]#

Whether the type is a union of attrs classes.

Parameters:

typ (Any) –

Return type:

bool

cattrs.disambiguators.create_default_dis_func(converter, *classes, use_literals=True, overrides='from_converter')[source]#

Given attrs classes or dataclasses, generate a disambiguation function.

The function is based on unique fields without defaults or unique values.

Parameters:
  • use_literals (bool) – Whether to try using fields annotated as literals for disambiguation.

  • overrides (dict[str, AttributeOverride] | Literal['from_converter']) – Attribute overrides to apply.

  • converter (BaseConverter) –

  • classes (type[AttrsInstance]) –

Return type:

Callable[[Mapping[Any, Any]], type[Any] | None]

Changed in version 24.1.0: Dataclasses are now supported.

cattrs.dispatch module#

class cattrs.dispatch.FunctionDispatch(converter, handler_pairs=_Nothing.NOTHING)[source]#

Bases: object

FunctionDispatch is similar to functools.singledispatch, but instead dispatches based on functions that take the type of the first argument in the method, and return True or False.

objects that help determine dispatch should be instantiated objects.

Parameters:
  • converter (BaseConverter) – A converter to be used for factories that require converters.

  • handler_pairs (list[tuple[Predicate, Callable[[Any, Any], Any], bool, bool]]) –

Changed in version 24.1.0: Support for factories that require converters, hence this requires a converter when creating.

Method generated by attrs for class FunctionDispatch.

register(predicate, func, is_generator=False, takes_converter=False)[source]#
Parameters:
  • predicate (Callable[[Any], bool]) –

  • func (Callable[[...], Any]) –

Return type:

None

dispatch(typ)[source]#

Return the appropriate handler for the object passed.

Parameters:

typ (Any) –

Return type:

Callable[[…], Any] | None

get_num_fns()[source]#
Return type:

int

copy_to(other, skip=0)[source]#
Parameters:
Return type:

None

class cattrs.dispatch.MultiStrategyDispatch(fallback_factory, converter)[source]#

Bases: Generic[Hook]

MultiStrategyDispatch uses a combination of exact-match dispatch, singledispatch, and FunctionDispatch.

Parameters:
  • converter (BaseConverter) – A converter to be used for factories that require converters.

  • fallback_factory (HookFactory[Hook]) – A hook factory to be called when a hook cannot be produced.

Changed in version 23.2.0: Fallbacks are now factories.

Changed in version 24.1.0: Support for factories that require converters, hence this requires a converter when creating.

dispatch: Callable[[TargetType, BaseConverter], Hook]#
dispatch_without_caching(typ)[source]#

Dispatch on the type but without caching the result.

Parameters:

typ (Any) –

Return type:

Hook

register_cls_list(cls_and_handler, direct=False)[source]#

Register a class to direct or singledispatch.

Parameters:

direct (bool) –

Return type:

None

register_func_list(pred_and_handler)[source]#

Register a predicate function to determine if the handler should be used for the type.

Parameters:

pred_and_handler (list[tuple[Predicate, Any] | tuple[Predicate, Any, bool] | tuple[Predicate, Callable[[Any, BaseConverter], Any], Literal['extended']]]) – The list of predicates and their associated handlers. If a handler is registered in extended mode, it’s a factory that requires a converter.

clear_direct()[source]#

Clear the direct dispatch.

Return type:

None

clear_cache()[source]#

Clear all caches.

Return type:

None

get_num_fns()[source]#
Return type:

int

copy_to(other, skip=0)[source]#
Parameters:
Return type:

None

cattrs.errors module#

exception cattrs.errors.StructureHandlerNotFoundError(message, type_)[source]#

Bases: Exception

Error raised when structuring cannot find a handler for converting inputs into type_.

Parameters:
  • message (str) –

  • type_ (Type) –

Return type:

None

exception cattrs.errors.BaseValidationError(message, excs, cl)[source]#

Bases: ExceptionGroup

Parameters:

cl (Type) –

cl: Type#
derive(excs)[source]#
class cattrs.errors.IterableValidationNote(string, index, type)[source]#

Bases: str

Attached as a note to an exception when an iterable element fails structuring.

Parameters:
  • string (str) –

  • index (int | str) –

  • type (Any) –

Return type:

IterableValidationNote

type: Any#
exception cattrs.errors.IterableValidationError(message, excs, cl)[source]#

Bases: BaseValidationError

Raised when structuring an iterable.

Parameters:

cl (Type) –

group_exceptions()[source]#

Split the exceptions into two groups: with and without validation notes.

Return type:

Tuple[List[Tuple[Exception, IterableValidationNote]], List[Exception]]

class cattrs.errors.AttributeValidationNote(string, name, type)[source]#

Bases: str

Attached as a note to an exception when an attribute fails structuring.

Parameters:
  • string (str) –

  • name (str) –

  • type (Any) –

Return type:

AttributeValidationNote

name: str#
type: Any#
exception cattrs.errors.ClassValidationError(message, excs, cl)[source]#

Bases: BaseValidationError

Raised when validating a class if any attributes are invalid.

Parameters:

cl (Type) –

group_exceptions()[source]#

Split the exceptions into two groups: with and without validation notes.

Return type:

Tuple[List[Tuple[Exception, AttributeValidationNote]], List[Exception]]

exception cattrs.errors.ForbiddenExtraKeysError(message, cl, extra_fields)[source]#

Bases: Exception

Raised when forbid_extra_keys is activated and such extra keys are detected during structuring.

The attribute extra_fields is a sequence of those extra keys, which were the cause of this error, and cl is the class which was structured with those extra keys.

Parameters:
  • message (str | None) –

  • cl (Type) –

  • extra_fields (Set[str]) –

Return type:

None

cattrs.fns module#

Useful internal functions.

cattrs.fns.Predicate#

A predicate function determines if a type can be handled.

alias of Callable[[Any], bool]

cattrs.fns.identity(obj)[source]#

The identity function.

Parameters:

obj (T) –

Return type:

T

cattrs.fns.raise_error(_, cl)[source]#

At the bottom of the condition stack, we explode if we can’t handle it.

Parameters:

cl (Type) –

Return type:

NoReturn

cattrs.v module#

Cattrs validation.

cattrs.v.format_exception(exc, type)[source]#

The default exception formatter, handling the most common exceptions.

The following exceptions are handled specially:

  • KeyErrors (required field missing)

  • ValueErrors (invalid value for type, expected <type> or just invalid value)

  • TypeErrors (invalid value for type, expected <type> and a couple special cases for iterables)

  • cattrs.ForbiddenExtraKeysError

  • some AttributeErrors (special cased for structing mappings)

Parameters:
  • exc (BaseException) –

  • type (type | None) –

Return type:

str

cattrs.v.transform_error(exc, path='$', format_exception=<function format_exception>)[source]#

Transform an exception into a list of error messages.

To get detailed error messages, the exception should be produced by a converter with detailed_validation set.

By default, the error messages are in the form of {description} @ {path}.

While traversing the exception and subexceptions, the path is formed:

  • by appending .{field_name} for fields in classes

  • by appending [{int}] for indices in iterables, like lists

  • by appending [{str}] for keys in mappings, like dictionaries

Parameters:
  • exc (ClassValidationError | IterableValidationError | BaseException) – The exception to transform into error messages.

  • path (str) – The root path to use.

  • format_exception (Callable[[BaseException, type | None], str]) – A callable to use to transform Exceptions into string descriptions of errors.

Return type:

List[str]

New in version 23.1.0.